Spatio-temporal assessment and climatology of atmospheric organic carbon over Pakistan
Organic carbon (OC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound. Once entered, the environment OC may cause climate change and effects on public health. The objective of the study was to assess the spatio-temporal trends of OC, climatology, and to develop inventories. The three satellite datasets (MACCity, ACCMIP, RCP 8.5) showed significant different trends in OC levels. Results indicated significantly higher trends in OC distribution during anthropogenic activities and the industrial era as compared with natural sources and the pre-industrial era. The residential and industrial sectors showed higher emission of OC 1.0 × 10−5to 2.5 × 102 Tg/year, respectively as compared with other sectors. Spatial distribution of OC revealed higher levels in bigger cities (Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Punch, and Mardan districts) of Pakistan. The temporal analysis shows irregular increasing trends in OC distribution with the passage of time. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that residential OC showed a positive correlation with surface temperature, wind and heat and OC transport, sum, residential, and energy sector with relative humidity in MACCity and RCP 8.5 datasets, respectively. The study indicated that savanna burning and residential sectors were a major contributor to the level of OC. The results will be helpful for the government to devise policies regarding OC management.
Published online: 18 July 2020
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Appear in Arabian Journal of Geosciences
Authors: Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Khadija Ashraf, Shahzada Adnan, Shuhong Wang, Siwatt Pongpiachan, Xiaomei Su & Zulkfil Ahmed
Keywords: Satellite, Spatio-temporal, Climatology, Atmospheric organic carbon, Pakistan